Warrant Liability Expenses/Gains - are associated with mark-to-market fair value adjustments which are largely based on the value of our common stock, which may vary from period to period due to factors such as stock price volatility. We believe these amounts are not correlated to future business operations and including such charges does not reflect our ongoing operations.
Non-Cash Interest, Net - includes amounts associated with the amortization of certain fees associated with the establishment or amendment of our Credit Agreement and Term Loans that are being amortized over the life of the agreement. We believe these amounts are non-cash in nature and not correlated to future business operations and including such charges does not reflect our ongoing operations.
Litigation Costs - includes gains, losses and expenses related to the resolution of other-than-ordinary-course threatened and actually filed lawsuits and other-than-ordinary-course contractual disputes and legal matters. We exclude these gains and losses because they are not considered by management in making operating decisions. We believe such gains, losses and expenses do not necessarily reflect the performance of our ongoing operations for the period in which such charges are recognized and the amount of such gains or losses and expenses can vary significantly between companies and make comparisons less reliable.
Acquisition and Integration Related Costs - includes such items as professional fees incurred in connection with pre-acquisition and integration specific activities, post-acquisition employee retention amounts, contingent consideration adjustments, severance and other amounts accrued or paid to terminated employees of acquired businesses, costs including salaries incurred which are not expected to have a continuing contribution to operations or are expected to have a diminishing contribution during the integration period and the amortization of the fair market step-up value of acquired inventory and fixed assets. We believe the exclusion of these items is useful in providing management a basis to evaluate ongoing operating activities and strategic decision making.
Discontinued Operations excluding consulting income - includes the profit and loss amounts of discontinued operations, with the exception of consulting income associated with a consulting agreement we entered into at the time of our Automotive business divestiture. We believe excluding gains and losses associated with historically divested businesses from our net income provides management with a comparable basis to our current ongoing operating activities. We do not exclude the consulting agreement income classified as discontinued operations because management views this income as part of our ongoing operations and correlated with future operations since we both derive income and incur ongoing costs associated with the consulting services available under the consulting agreement.
Other - primarily include transaction expenses incurred as part of our Credit Agreement Amendments in the fourth fiscal quarter of 2016 as well as the second and third fiscal quarters of 2017. We believe these amounts are not correlated to future business operations and including such charges does not reflect our ongoing operations.
Tax Effect of Non-GAAP Adjustments - adjustments to arrive at an estimate of our Adjusted Non-GAAP tax rate associated with our Adjusted Non-GAAP income over a period of time. We determine our Adjusted Non-GAAP income tax rate by using applicable rates in taxing jurisdictions and assessing certain factors including our historical and forecast earnings by jurisdiction, discrete items, cash taxes paid in relation to our Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Income before income taxes and our ability to realize tax assets. We generally assess this Adjusted Non-GAAP income tax rate quarterly and have utilized 10% for our second and third fiscal quarters of 2017, 12% for our first fiscal quarter of 2017 and 15% for our fiscal year 2016. Our historical effective income tax rate under GAAP has varied significantly from our Adjusted Non-GAAP income tax rate. Items that have historically resulted in significant difference between our effective income tax rate under GAAP and our Adjusted Non-GAAP income tax rate include changes in fair values of the common stock warrant liability, which is excluded from our Adjusted Non-GAAP net Income and is neither deductible nor taxable for tax purposes, income taxed in foreign jurisdictions at generally lower tax rates, non-deductible compensation, research and development tax credits and merger expenses, as well as the establishment of a valuation allowance against our U.S. deferred tax assets during the three months ended March 31, 2017. We believe it is beneficial for our management to review our Adjusted Non-GAAP income tax rate on a consistent basis over periods of time. Items such as those noted above may have a significant impact on our U.S. GAAP income tax expense and associated effective tax rate over time. Our Adjusted Non-GAAP income tax rate is an estimate, and may differ from our effective income tax rate determined under GAAP.
Adjusted EBITDA - is a calculation that adds depreciation expense and consulting agreement income to our Adjusted Non-GAAP Income from Operations. Adjusted EBITDA is a measure that management reviews and utilizes for operational analysis purposes. We believe competitors and others in the financial industry utilize this Non-GAAP measure for analysis purposes.
Free Cash Flow - is a calculation that starts with cash flow from
operating activities, reduces this amount by our capital expenditures in
the applicable period and adds AppliedMicro transaction related
payments. Free Cash Flow is a measure that management reviews and
utilizes for cash flow analysis purposes. We believe competitors and
others in the financial industry utilize this Non-GAAP measure for
analyzing a company's cash flow.